Based on the data of 71 agricultural listed companies listed on Shanghai and Shenzhen a-shares from 2010 to 2017, the relationship between customer concentration and performance of agricultural enterprises was investigated. The research showed that: the customer concentration of agricultural listed companies had A significant negative impact on their enterprise performance. Asset specificity has a moderating effect on the relationship between customer concentration and performance of agricultural enterprises. The interaction coefficient between customer concentration and asset specificity is significantly positive at the level of 5%, that is, the improvement of asset specificity can significantly inhibit the negative impact of customer concentration on performance of agricultural enterprises. Further dividing agricultural enterprises according to property rights, it is found that the moderating effect of higher degree of asset specificity on the relationship between customer concentration and enterprise performance exists only in the sample of state-owned agricultural enterprises.