Based on the Theory of Human Settlements and the rural settlements data in China Labor-force Dynamics Survey 2016 (CLDS), this paper evaluates the quality of rural human settlements from five dimensions of ecological environment, infrastructure, public services, housing conditions and cultural environment with principal components analysis(PCA), and further analyzes influencing factors of rural human settlements quality from three aspects of natural geographical conditions, social and economic attributes and social capital attributes. The results show that the overall rural human settlements is in high quality, with significant differences in each dimension. The building of the ecological environment and infrastructure has achieved remarkable results, but some shortcomings still exist in cultural environment, public services and housing conditions. Regional analysis shows that the effect of rural human settlements governance in eastern China is significantly better than that in central and western regions, with the contribution rate of regional differences to the overall difference at 83.78%. Plain terrain, reduced labor outflow, development of collective economy, village cadre management experience, the number of Communist Party of China and the donation from returnees can significantly improve the quality of rural human settlements. It is recommended to give more financial support to the central and western regions, improve the talent flow channels, strengthen the collective economy, actively cultivate new township talents, and improve the self-government mechanism to further enhance the rural environmental governance performance.