Based on the survey data of 3,133 farmers, the optimal scale regression model is used to explore the influence of political attitudes and electoral efficacy on farmers’ political participation. The results show that political attitudes and electoral efficacy have a significant impact on farmers’ political participation, and electoral efficacy plays an intermediate role between political attitude and political participation. Political cognition and political emotions indirectly affect political participation through electoral efficacy, while political responsibility mainly directly affects political participation. In terms of political cognition, the cognition of rural revitalization performs its role in political participation mainly through the indirect influence mechanism. In terms of political sentiment, village cadres’ working ability, work enthusiasm, job satisfaction, and party members’ enthusiasm mainly affect political participation through election self-efficacy; in terms of political responsibility, although the farmers' sense of political responsibility is not so strong, their enthusiasm for public affairs has greatly affected their political participation.