Based on a micro data obtained from field survey in six provinces, this study empirically analyzed farmers’ cognition and influencing factors on technical specifications for prevention and control of African swine fever by the ordered Logit model. Results show that farmers have a general understanding of technical specifications for prevention and control of African swine though there is still room for further awareness. The breeding knowledge learning experience, African swine fever virus awareness, number of contacts, number of family engaged in breeding, the farm qualification, African swine fever Insurance, policy to support the pig industry have a significant positive impact on farmers’ cognition of technical specifications for prevention and control of African swine fever. However, the decision-makers’ age, the family loan have significant constraint impacts. Based on the above results, the paper suggests that the government strengthen policy support for the pig industry, improve the prevention and control system of major animal diseases, innovate African swine fever insurance products, and strengthen training on prevention and control of African swine fever to effectively improve farmers’ cognition on technical specifications for prevention and control of African swine fever.