Based on the theory of planned behavior, this paper constructs a theoretical model of farmers' willingness and behavior to use straw as resource. Based on the survey data of 331 farmers in four cities (autonomous prefectures) of Hunan province, this paper empirically analyzes the behavior of farmers' using straw as resource and its influencing factors by using structural equation model. The results show that: Behavior attitude, subjective norm and perceptual behavior control have a significant positive impact on farmers' willingness to use straw, and the willingness to use straw also has a significant positive impact on their use behavior. Farmers’ perception of straw resource utilization behavior (cognition of improving their skills) will positively affect their cognition and evaluation of straw resource utilization, and then affect farmers' willingness to use straw resource. The support of township neighbors, village committees, and village cadres is an important factor affecting the subjective judgment of farmers. Straw resource utilization and supporting facilities is a key factor for farmers' perceived behavior. Active promotion of straw resource utilization is the final result of farmers' behavior.