Based on the mixed attributes of consumption assistance transactions and their implementation characteristics, 55 sample cases have been screened out from consumption assistance cases published by the National Development and Reform Commission and People’s Daily Online and the configuration paths and mechanism of several factors affecting consumption assistance transactions have been analyzed by using the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) method. The study found that market operation is a requisite for effective consumption assistance transactions. There are four effective configuration of consumption assistance transactions: “social atmosphere led+market operation assisted”, “government guidance+market operation”, “market operation+logistics facilities” and “science and technology support+market operation”. “Social atmosphere led+market operation assisted” configuration covers 68.2% of cases, and in the necessity test social atmosphere as a single variable covers 92.5% of cases, which verifies that consumption assistance is an important way for social forces to participate in poverty alleviation. The conclusions imply a policy priority sequence for building a long-term mechanism for consumption assistance in the context of common prosperity: market operation, social atmosphere, government guidance, logistics facilities and scientific and technological support.